Effect of activity coefficient on complex formation

The formation of the complex changes the ionic strength of the solution, thereby also changing the activity coefficient of the ions. Ratio is set free in solution and the concentration of metal ions is referred to as the total concentration of the metal of the metal total activity coefficient γ M (global activity coefficient), the

The commonly reported beta n is the value extrapolated to zero ionic strength, so a zero correction value is used. In the ammonia and ethylamine complex ion solution, the cumulative instability constant β n is not constant when the ionic strength changes. The above equations are not quite correct for ammonia solutions, and in fact it is possible to overestimate the γ M value. For example, when I=1, it may be overestimated by 2 times.

For negatively charged ligands, such as Cl - , CN and SO 4 2 - , the formation of complexes reduces the actual ionic strength, sometimes much lower than the value assumed to be completely dissociated. Meissner considered the effect of ordinary ion association in a binary electrolyte solution and corrected it by the choice of its q value. However, he did not give the q value of the chloride or cyanide of salts such as Cu + , Ag + , Au + , Au 3 + , Hg + and Pb 2 + which are known to form strong complexes. Solutions of these salts are very important in hydrometallurgy, but there is currently no good way to estimate the activity coefficients of these metal ions in chloride or cyanide solutions.

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